2023  1,500
2022  1,200
2021  1,540
2020  1,374
2019  1,023
2018  0,932
2017  0,977
2016  0,799
2015  0,662
2014  0,740
2013  0,739
2012  0,637
2011  0,658
2010  0,654
2009  0,570
2008  0,849
2007  0,805
2006  0,330
2005  0,435
2004  0,623
2003  0,567
2002  0,641
2001  0,490
2000  0,477
1999  0,762
1998  0,785
1997  0,507
1996  0,518
1995  0,502
Vol 58(2024) N 1 p. 33-42; DOI 10.1134/S0026893324010023 Full Text

S.V. Fialkina1,2*, E.A. Deshevaya1, A.L. Rakitin3, O.I. Orlov1

Genome Stability of Bacillus velezensis after Two-Year Exposure in Open Space

1Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow, 123007 Russia
2Gamaleya Research Centre, Moscow, 123098 Russia
3Institute of Bioengineering, Research Center of Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071 Russia

Received - 2023-03-30; Revised - 2023-05-12; Accepted - 2023-05-30

Spore-forming bacteria have a unique resistance to negative environmental conditions, including aggressive space factors, and are an excellent model for studying adaptation mechanisms and survival strategies at the molecular level. The study analyzed the genome of Bacillus velezensis, which remained viable after a 2-year exposure in outer space on the outer surface of the ISS as part of the Test space experiment. A comparative analysis of the draft genomes of the exhibit strain and the ground control did not reveal significant changes; the average nucleotide identity was 99.98%, which indicates the ability of microorganisms to maintain genome stability in space conditions, due to both increased stress resistance of bacterial spores and efficient operation of the system of repair of accumulated changes. The study of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the genome of B. velezensis revealed nine point substitutions, three of which are in intergenic regions, six in protein-coding genes, three of them are missense mutations, two nucleotide deletions leading to a shift in the reading frame, and one synonymous substitution. The profiles of the housekeeping genes were determined during MLST typing and it was found that the allelic profiles obtained for B. velezensis T15.2 and 924 strains do not correspond to any of the previously described sequence types. The presented results indicate the ability of B. velezensis bacteria to maintain the viability of spores and the integrity of the genome for a long time under extreme conditions of outer space, which is important for the problem of planetary protection, as well as the potential possibility of performing biotechnological processes based on B. velezensis during space exploration.

"Test" space experiment, Bacillus velezensis, impact of cosmic factors, low Earth orbit, bacterial spores, International Space Station (ISS)