2023  1,500
2022  1,200
2021  1,540
2020  1,374
2019  1,023
2018  0,932
2017  0,977
2016  0,799
2015  0,662
2014  0,740
2013  0,739
2012  0,637
2011  0,658
2010  0,654
2009  0,570
2008  0,849
2007  0,805
2006  0,330
2005  0,435
2004  0,623
2003  0,567
2002  0,641
2001  0,490
2000  0,477
1999  0,762
1998  0,785
1997  0,507
1996  0,518
1995  0,502
Vol 58(2024) N 1 p. 17-32; DOI 10.1134/S0026893324010084 Full Text

E.V. Mikhaylova1*, B.R. Kuluev1, G.A. Gerashchenkov1, D.A. Chemeris1, R.R. Garafutdinov1, A.R. Kuluev1, An.K. Baymiev1, Al.K. Baymiev1, A.V. Chemeris1

Prime-Editing Methods and pegRNA Design Programs

1Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center, Russian Academy of Science, Ufa, 450054 Russia

Received - 2023-04-18; Revised - 2023-05-22; Accepted - 2023-06-09

It has been 10 years since CRISPR/Cas technology was applied to edit the genomes of various organisms. Its ability to produce a double-strand break in a DNA region specified by the researcher started a revolution in bioengineering. Later, the Base Editing (BE) method was developed. BE is performed via the formation of single-strand breaks by the mutant form of Cas nuclease (nickase), fused with deaminases and other enzymes. It can be used to promote A ↔ G and C ↔ T transitions, and a C → G transversion. Just over 3 years ago, a new Prime Editing (PE) variant of CRISPR/Cas was invented. Unlike BE, in PE the nickase is fused with reverse transcriptase, capable of building a new DNA chain using the pegRNA template. The pegRNA consists of an elongated guide RNA with an extra sequence at the 3'-end. Prime editing makes it possible to insert the desired mutations into this extra sequence and to carry out any substitutions and indels of bases without the use of special donor DNA. To date, a number of PE variants have been proposed; they are briefly considered in this review with an emphasis on prime editing of plant genomes. Some attention is also paid to pegRNA design programs, as well as evaluation of the efficiency of the editing. Such a variety of PE techniques is due to the opportunities of high-precision introduction of desired changes with a rather low frequency of off-target mutations in the genomes of various organisms. The relatively low efficiency of prime editing inspires researchers to offer new approaches. There is hope that further development of the technology will improve PE enough to take its rightful place among the genome targeting methods that are suitable for any organisms, and will have a positive impact on the agricultural sector, industrial biotechnologies, and medicine.

CRISPR, prime editing, PE, nCas9, nick, guide RNA, pegRNA, ngRNA, computer program, online tool