2023  1,500
2022  1,200
2021  1,540
2020  1,374
2019  1,023
2018  0,932
2017  0,977
2016  0,799
2015  0,662
2014  0,740
2013  0,739
2012  0,637
2011  0,658
2010  0,654
2009  0,570
2008  0,849
2007  0,805
2006  0,330
2005  0,435
2004  0,623
2003  0,567
2002  0,641
2001  0,490
2000  0,477
1999  0,762
1998  0,785
1997  0,507
1996  0,518
1995  0,502
Vol 57(2023) N 6 p. 1199-1211; DOI 10.1134/S0026893324010163 Full Text

S. Sharma1, L. Teekas1, N. Vijay1*

Protein Repeats Show Clade-Specific Volatility in Aves

1Computational Evolutionary Genomics Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhauri, Madhya Pradesh, 462066 India

Received - 2023-03-20; Revised - 2023-04-25; Accepted - 2023-05-30

Protein repeats are a source of rapid evolutionary and functional novelty. Repeats are crucial in development, neurogenesis, immunity, and disease. Repeat length variability and purity can alter the outcome of a pathway by altering the protein structure and affecting the protein-protein interaction affinity. Such rampant alterations can facilitate species to rapidly adapt to new environments or acquire various morphological/physiological features. With more than 11000 species, the avian clade is one of the most speciose vertebrate clades, with near-ubiquitous distribution globally. Explosive adaptive radiation and functional diversification facilitated the birds to occupy various habitats. High diversity in morphology, physiology, flight pattern, behavior, coloration, and life histories make birds ideal for studying protein repeats' role in evolutionary novelty. Our results demonstrate a similar repeat diversity and proportion of repeats across all the avian orders considered, implying an essential role of repeats in necessary pathways. We detected positively selected sites (PSS) in the polyQ repeat of RUNX2 in the avian clade; and considerable repeat length contraction in the Psittacopasserae. The repeats show a species-wide bias towards a contraction in Galloanseriformes. Interestingly, we detected the length contrast of polyS repeat in PCDH20 between Galliformes and Anseriformes. We speculate the length variability of serine repeat and its interaction with β-catenin in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could have facilitated fowls to adapt to their respective environmental conditions. We believe our study emphasizes the role of protein repeats in functional/morphological diversification in birds. We also provide an extensive list of genes with considerable repeat length contrast to further explore the role of length volatility in evolutionary novelty and rapid functional diversification.

protein repeats, repeat length variation, Aves, diversity, natural selection