Vol 56(2022) N 4 p. 495-507; DOI 10.1134/S0026893322040045
A.A. Dmitriev1, E.N. Pushkova1, N.V. Melnikova1*
Plant Genome Sequencing: Modern Technologies and Novel Opportunities for Breeding1Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Received - 2021-07-17; Revised - 2021-08-24; Accepted - 2021-08-24
The investigation of plant genomes is of great importance for basic research and practical breeding. In 1977, F. Sanger proposed a DNA sequencing method, which allowed the complete sequences of a number of genomes to be determined. Then high-throughput and cost-effective next-generation/second-generation sequencing methods, producing up to billions of short reads, made it possible to sequence genomes of a significant number of species and provided a breakthrough in plant genetic studies. Finally, third-generation sequencing technologies allowed the determination of single-molecule sequences up to a million nucleotides in length, which is key for high-quality genome assemblies. An important task is to obtain a pan-genome, which includes an entire set of nucleotide sequences presented in various genotypes of the same species. The sequencing of plant genomes made it possible to assess intraspecific polymorphism, identify key genes influencing the formation of significant features, and develop molecular markers of economically valuable traits and this has become the basis for the development of marker-assisted and genomic selection. This review provides information on the latest advances in sequencing technologies and the assembly of plant genomes, as well as the opportunities that they open up for basic and applied works.
plants, genome, pan-genome, sequencing, breeding