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Vol 56(2022) N 1 p. 46-58; DOI 10.1134/S002689332201006X Full Text

O.N. Shilova1, D.L. Tsyba2,3, E.S. Shilov4*

Mutagenic Activity of AID/APOBEC Deaminases in Antiviral Defense and Carcinogenesis

1Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997 Russia
2Pavlov First State Medical University, St. Petersburg, 197022 Russia
3Sirius University of Science and Technology, Sochi, 354340 Russia
4Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234 Russia

*shilov_evgeny@inbox.ru
Received - 2020-12-28; Revised - 2021-04-23; Accepted - 2021-06-01

Proteins of the AID/APOBEC family are capable of cytidine deamination in nucleic acids forming uracil. These enzymes are involved in mRNA editing, protection against viruses, the introduction of point mutations into DNA during somatic hypermutation, and antibody isotype switching. Since these deaminases, especially AID, are potent mutagens, their expression, activity, and specificity are regulated by several intra-cellular mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of impaired expression and activation of AID/APOBEC proteins in human tumors and their role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Also, the diagnostic and potential therapeutic value of increased expression of AID/APOBEC in different types of tumors is analyzed. We assume that in the case of solid tumors, increased expression of endogenous deaminases can serve as a marker of response to immunotherapy since multiple point mutations in host DNA could lead to amino acid substitutions in tumor proteins and thereby increase the frequency of neoepitopes.

AID, APOBEC, mutagenesis, tumor, RNA editing, genomic instability



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