Vol 56(2022) N 1 p. 1-28; DOI 10.1134/S0026893321050149
D.V. Zaletaev1,2*, M.V. Nemtsova1,2, V.V. Strelnikov2
Epigenetic Regulation Disturbances on Gene Expression in Imprinting Diseases1Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, 119146 Russia
2Bochkov Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow, 115522 Russia
Received - 2021-04-13; Revised - 2021-05-13; Accepted - 2021-05-13
Epigenetic regulation is hereditary and non-hereditary changes in the expression of a particular gene without any corresponding structural changes in its nucleotide sequence. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism for regulating the expression of homologous genes depending on parental origin, i.e., they are expressed monoallelically in the mammalian diploid cell. Being genetically imprinted, only the maternal or only the paternal genome is unable to ensure normal embryonic development. The most studied epigenetic modification, which plays one of the main roles in the maintenance of imprinting processes, is the specific methylation of cytosine in CpG-dinucleotides. All known imprinted genes contain differential DNA methylation regions on homologous parent chromosomes, which are necessary for their monoallelic expression. However, it is now known that not only DNA methylation, but chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs also ensure the proper functioning of imprinted genes in the human body. Structural and functional disturbances of epigenetic mechanisms lead to imprinting diseases.
epigenetic regulation of gene expression, abnormal DNA methylation, differentially methylated regions, imprinting center, epimutations, uniparental disomy, imprinting diseases