Vol 55(2021) N 5 p. 705-726; DOI 10.1134/S0026893321040075
E.V. Marilovtseva1,2*, V.M. Studitsky1,3
Guanine Quadruplexes in Cell Nucleus Metabolism1Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234 Russia
2Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117997 Russia
3Cancer Epigenetics Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 USA
Received - 2021-02-09; Revised - 2021-03-29; Accepted - 2021-03-31
Cell metabolism depends, to a large extent, on correct regulation of gene expression. One of the mechanisms of regulation is the formation of nucleic acid secondary structures, among which guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes, or G4) are of particular importance. G-quadruplexes are dynamic structures whose stability is determined by their size, ionic composition, and the nature of the nucleic acids forming them. They are regulated by various protein factors. Guanine quadruplexes play an important role in the regulation of many processes occurring in DNA and RNA, from maintaining telomere homeostasis to determining the ribosome landing site on mRNA. Therefore, these structures are considered a promising target for antitumor therapy, and their detailed study is important to modern biology. This review is focused on the structure and thermodynamic properties of G-quadruplexes together with their interaction with some nuclear proteins.
guanine quadruplexes, G4, DNA, RNA, nucleic acid secondary structure, regulation of gene expression