Vol 55(2021) N 5 p. 670-682; DOI 10.1134/S002689332104004X
D.G. Garbuz1*, O.G. Zatsepina1, M.B. Evgen'ev1
Beta Amyloid, Tau Protein, and Neuroinflammation: An Attempt to Integrate Different Hypotheses of Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis1Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Received - 2021-01-21; Revised - 2021-03-04; Accepted - 2021-03-05
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that inevitably results in dementia and death. Currently, there are no pathogenetically grounded methods for the prevention and treatment of AD, and all current treatment regimens are symptomatic and unable to significantly delay the development of dementia. The accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), which is a spontaneous, aggregation-prone, and neurotoxic product of the processing of signaling protein APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein), in brain tissues, primarily in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex, was for a long time considered the main cause of neurodegenerative changes in AD. However, attempts to treat AD based on decreasing Aβ production and aggregation did not bring significant clinical results. More and more arguments are arising in favor of the fact that the overproduction of Aβ in most cases of AD is not the initial cause, but a concomitant event of pathological processes in the course of the development of sporadic AD. The concept of neuroinflammation has come to the fore, suggesting that inflammatory responses play the leading role in the initiation and development of AD, both in brain tissue and in the periphery. The hypothesis about the key role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of AD opens up new opportunities in the search for ways to treat and prevent this socially significant disease.
Alzheimer's disease, neurodegeneration, β-amyloid, tau protein, neuroinflammation