Vol 55(2021) N 5 p. 645-669; DOI 10.1134/S0026893321040087
E.M. Samoilova1*, V.V. Belopasov2, V.P. Baklaushev1
Transcription Factors of Direct Neuronal Reprogramming in Ontogenesis and ex vivo1Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia, Moscow, 115682 Russia
2Astrakhan State Medical University, Astrakhan, 414000 Russia
Received - 2020-10-11; Revised - 2020-12-14; Accepted - 2020-12-15
Direct reprogramming technology allows several specific types of cells, including specialized neurons, to be obtained from readily available autologous somatic cells. It presents unique opportunities for the development of personalized medicine, from in vitro models of hereditary and degenerative neurological diseases to novel neuroregenerative technologies. Over the past decade, a plethora of protocols for primary reprogramming has been published, yet reproducible generation of homogeneous populations of neuronally reprogrammed cells still remains a challenge. All existing protocols, however, use transcription factors that are involved in embryonic neurogenesis. This is presumably be the key issue for obtaining highly efficient and reproducible protocols for ex vivo neurogenesis. Analysis of the functional features of transcription factors in embryonic and adult neurogenesis may not only lead to the improvement of reprogramming protocols, but also, via cell marker analysis, can exactly determine the stage of neurogenesis that a particular protocol will reach. The purpose of this review is to characterize the general factors that play key roles in neurogenesis for the embryonic and adult periods, as well as in cellular reprogramming, and to assess correspondence of cell forms obtained as a result of cellular reprogramming to the ontogenetic series of the nervous system, from pluripotent stem cells to specialized neurons.
embryonic neurogenesis, adult neurogenesis, morphogenic factors, proneuronal factors, direct reprogramming, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, induced neurons, PAX6, MSI1, GSX2, DLX, ASCL1, NGN2, BRN2, MYT11, NEUROD1