Vol 55(2021) N 4 p. 538-547; DOI 10.1134/S0026893321030158
A.N. Vzorov1,2*, E.I. Samokhvalov1, V.V. Chebanenko2, D.V. Scheblyakov1, A.L. Gintsburg1,3
Modification of the Spike Protein for Vaccines against Enveloped RNA Viruses1Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 123098 Russia
2Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow 119234 Russia
3Department of Infectiology and Virology, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow 123098 Russia
Received - 2021-03-04; Revised - 2021-03-22; Accepted - 2021-03-22
Most vaccines work by inducing neutralizing antibodies that target the viral envelope. Enveloped RNA viruses have evolved mechanisms for surface glycoproteins to evade host immune responses, which exhibit substantial variability, even among different strains. Natural infection and vaccines using native forms of surface proteins may induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, yet with low and ineffective levels. Class I membrane-fusion proteins of enveloped RNA viruses, HIV-1, influenza A virus, SARS-CoV-2, yield a stable conformation (so-called "pre-fusion") in providing fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Modified viral surface proteins that are based on these features induce neutralizing antibodies with activity available against a broad spectrum of circulating strains and make it possible to overcome the difficulties associated with escape/variability of viral antigen.
enveloped RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2, HIV-1, influenza A virus, spike protein, haemagglutinin, Env, fusion mechanisms, neutralizing antibodies, vaccines