Vol 55(2021) N 4 p. 459-469; DOI 10.1134/S0026893321030092
G.A. Puzanov1, V.N. Senchenko1*
SCP Phosphatases and Oncogenesis1Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Received - 2020-12-02; Revised - 2020-12-29; Accepted - 2020-12-30
Small SCP phosphatases CTDSP1, CTDSP2, and CTDSPL specifically dephosphorylate serine and threonine residues in protein molecules. The enzymes are involved in regulating activity of RNA polymerase II at the transition from transcription initiation to elongation, regulating expression of neuron-specific genes, and activating the key cell-cycle protein pRb at the G1/S boundary. In addition, the substrates of SCP phosphatases include SMAD transcription modulators; AKT1 protein kinase, which regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis; the TWIST1 and c-MYC transcription factors; Ras family proteins, which are involved in signaling pathways regulating the cell growth and apoptosis; CDCA3, which is associated with cell division; the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21; and the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), which is involved in regulation of the tumor suppressors p53, PTEN, and mTOR. Dysfunction or inactivation of SCP phosphatases leads to various diseases, including cancer. Recently the increase in interest to SCP phosphatases is due to their their tumor growth-inhibiting properties or role in the development of malignant tumors of various etiology and localization. The review discusses the properties of SCP phosphatases and their role in oncogenesis. Understanding the functions of SCP phosphatases and their regulatory mechanisms can be useful in searching for efficient targets for tumor therapy.
SCP phosphatases, tumor suppressors, oncogenesis