2022  1,200
2021  1,540
2020  1,374
2019  1,023
2018  0,932
2017  0,977
2016  0,799
2015  0,662
2014  0,740
2013  0,739
2012  0,637
2011  0,658
2010  0,654
2009  0,570
2008  0,849
2007  0,805
2006  0,330
2005  0,435
2004  0,623
2003  0,567
2002  0,641
2001  0,490
2000  0,477
1999  0,762
1998  0,785
1997  0,507
1996  0,518
1995  0,502
Vol 54(2020) N 6 p. 812-826; DOI 10.1134/S0026893320060151 Full Text

T.A. Zaichuk1, Y.D. Nechipurenko2*, A.A. Adzhubey2,3, S.B. Onikienko4, V.A. Chereshnev5, S.S. Zainutdinov6, G.V. Kochneva6, S.V. Netesov7, O.V. Matveeva1,8**

The Challenges of Vaccine Development Against Betacoronaviruses: Antibody Dependent Enhancement and Sendai Virus as a Possible Vaccine Vector

1Sendai Viralytics, Acton, MA, 117261 USA
2Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
3George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 USA
4Department of Military Field Therapy, Kirov Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, 194044 Russia
5Institute of Immunology and Physiology, Yekaterinburg, 620049 Russia
6State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Koltsovo, 630559 Russia
7Department of Natural Sciences, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
8Biopolymer Design, Acton, MA, 117281 USA

Received - 2020-04-30; Revised - 2020-06-04; Accepted - 2020-06-05

To design an effective and safe vaccine against betacoronaviruses, it is necessary to elicit a combination of strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as to minimize the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection. This phenomenon was observed in animal trials of experimental vaccines against SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV that were developed based on inactivated coronavirus or vector constructs expressing the spike protein (S) of the virion. The substitution and glycosylation of certain amino acids in the antigenic determinants of the S-protein, as well as its conformational changes, can lead to the same effect in a new experimental vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. This review outlines approaches for developing vaccines against the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that are based on non-pathogenic viral vectors. For efficient prevention of infections caused by respiratory pathogens the ability of the vaccine to stimulate mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract is important. Such a vaccine can be developed using non-pathogenic Sendai virus vector, since it can be administered intranasally and induce a mucosal immune response that strengthens the antiviral barrier in the respiratory tract and provides reliable protection against infection. The mucosal immunity and the production of IgA antibodies accompanying its development reduces the likelihood of developing an antibody-dependent infection enhancement, which is usually associated only with immunopathological IgG antibodies.

SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, COVID-19, antibody-dependent enhancement, ADE, vaccine vector, Sendai virus, murine respirovirus, conservative antigenic determinants