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Vol 53(2019) N 2 p. 192-197; DOI 10.1134/S0026893319020122 Full Text

M.A. Moldovan1,2,3*

Prokaryotic and Mitochondrial Linear Genomes: Their Genesis, Evolutionary Significance, and the Problem of Replicating Chromosome Ends

1Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 127051 Russia
2Department of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia
3Skolkovo Institute for Science and Technology, Moscow, 121205 Russia

*mika.moldavan@gmail.com
Received - 2018-10-29; Revised - 2018-10-29; Accepted - 2018-10-29

Bacterial chromosomes are widely thought of as circular DNA molecules. However, linear bacterial chromosomes, as well as linear mitochondrial and plastid chromosomes, are fairly common. The most frequent causes of linearization are reparation system defects, incorporation of plasmids in the genome, and recombination compromising the circular topology of chromosomes. Genomes of some bacterial species had undergone frequent linearization-circularization events, which resulted in an increased variability of gene content at linear chromosome ends. Similarly to eukaryotes, bacteria that have linear genomes face the problem of end replication, which different species solve in a variety of ways. A theoretically important issue is the adaptive value of chromosome linearization. This review discusses theories concerning the evolution of linear genomes and supporting experiments. The most common mechanisms of linear bacterial genomes replication and possible ways of their emergence are also considered.

linear genomes, prokaryotic chromosome, chromosome topology, mitochondrial chromosome, genome linearization, ends replication



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