Vol 48(2014) N 3 p. 332-331; DOI 10.1134/S0026893314030078
E.S. Gushchanskaya1*, A.A. Gavrilov2, S.V. Razin1,2
Spatial Organization of Interphase Chromosomes and the Role of Chromatin Fibril Dynamics in the Positioning of Genome Elements1Biology Department, Moscow State University, Moscow, 199992, Russia
2Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334, Russia
Received - 2014-01-23; Accepted - 2014-01-23
Many studies are devoted to the analysis of interphase chromosome architecture due to the evidence of the functional-dependent spatial organization of the genome. These studies are based on classical cytological methods, as well as on biochemical approaches (3C, 4C, 5C, Hi-C), which allow one to detect long-range interactions between fragments of chromatin fibril, including the genome-wide interactions. In this review, we discuss the results of these projects, which allow us to explain the functional basis of nucleus multilevel compartmentalization and to identify the principles of high-level chromatin organization. Special attention is paid to the enhancer-promoter interactions, which are important for the regulation of gene expression. In this regard, we provide a new interpretation to the model of an active chromatin hub and to the alternative model of an active chromatin compartment, which was proposed during reconsideration of some steps of the 3C procedure.
genome spatial organization, nuclear compartments, 3C, Hi-C, topologically associated domains, active chromatin hub, active chromatin compartment, fractal globule