Vol 49(2015) N 2 p. 185-194; DOI 10.1134/S0026893315020119
S.V. Razin1,2*, A.A. Gavrilov1, S.V. Ulyanov1,2
Transcription-controlling regulatory elements of the eukaryotic genome1Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334 Russia
2Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Received - 2014-09-24; Accepted - 2014-09-24
The eukaryotic genomic regulatory elements that control transcription are considered. The review describes the functional anatomy of tissue-specific and housekeeping gene promoters, current methods to predict and to identify the enhancers, and the role insulators play in enhancer-promoter communication and maintenance of the epigenetic status of genome domains. The relationship between the topology of interphase chromatin and the regulation of transcription is outlined. Particular attention is paid to recent data obtained via high-throughput sequencing of primary transcripts and genome-wide analysis of histone modifications.
transcription, chromatin, genome spatial organization, promoter, enhancer, silencer, insulator