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Vol 44(2010) N 6 p. 839-855;
E.A. Belousova, O.I. Lavrik*

DNA polymerases β and λ and their roles in the DNA replication and repair

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia

*lavrik@niboch.nsc.ru
Received - 2010-04-20; Accepted - 2010-06-04

DNA-dependent DNA polymerases are the main enzymes that catalyze DNA replication. Higher eukaryotic cells have 19 DNA polymerases with strikingly different properties. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ of the A family and most of the nuclear enzymes of the B family are high-fidelity DNA polymerases that are involved not only in genomic DNA replication but also in DNA repair. Among the other 15 proteins, DNA polymerases belonging to the X and Y families have a special place. The majority of these enzymes are also involved in repair, including base excision repair and nonhomologous end joining. Some of them play a specific role in replication of damaged DNA templates. This process is referred to as translesion synthesis (TLS). DNA polymerases b and λ, which belong to the X structural family, are polyfunctional enzymes; their properties and functions are discussed.

DNA polymerases β and λ, translesion synthesis (TSL), replication protein A (RPA), PCNA



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